本日配信のメルマガ。2011年センター英語第6問 長文問題

本日配信のメルマガでは、2011年大学入試センター試験英語第6問を解説します。


【高校英語】過去問攻略!センター英語
http://www.mag2.com/m/0001641009.html


■ 問題

第6問 次の文章を読み、下の問い(問1~6)の[ 46 ]~[ 51 ]に入れるのに最も
適当なものを、それぞれ下の{1}~{4}のうちから一つずつ選べ。なお、文章の左に
ある(1)~(6)は段落の番号を表している。

(1) Rats, mice, hamsters, and squirrels belong to a large group of animals
called rodents. It is estimated that there are about 2,000 species of
rodent, and they are believed to be one of the most successful groups of
animals we know. They are considered successful because the rodent group
accounts for over 40% of all mammal species on earth. Of all the rodents,
the mouse-like rodents, such as those mentioned above, are probably the
most successful, and it has been suggested that what makes them so is
their teeth.

(2) Rodents' teeth enable them to eat a wide range of food, such as
leaves, roots, nuts, and seeds. All rodents have four very sharp teeth at
the front of their mouths -- two at the top and two at the bottom. These
teeth are called incisors, but unlike the incisors of most other mammals,
they never stop growing. So whatever their age, rodents will always have
fresh, sharp teeth to eat with. In addition, they also have extremely
strong muscles around their mouths, which enables them to bite through the
shells of nuts and seeds. Many other mammals and birds cannot do this, so
the seeds they eat pass through their bodies undigested, and the nutrition
within them is unused.

(3) Nuts and seeds are very nutritious. Some seeds, such as sunflower
seeds, sesame seeds, and peanuts, are very high in fat and protein. There
are benefits of being able to eat these energy-rich foods: a lot of energy
is gained in a short period of time; spending less time outside the home
searching for food reduces the risk of being killed by other animals; and
the time saved can be spent reproducing and looking after their young.

(4) Successful reproduction is essential to the survival of a species.
However, it can be a double-edged sword. That is, it has good points and
bad points. Many rats and mice are eaten by other animals before they die
of natural causes, so being able to reproduce quickly is a good thing as
it increases the species' chances of survival. For example, a Norwegian
rat could have 56 children and over 400 grandchildren within 20 weeks of
being born. On the other hand, if reproduction is too successful and there
is a huge increase in population in a short time, then there will not be
enough food available for all of them to survive. When this happens,
thousands and thousands die, resulting in a population crash.

(5) The survivors often survive, not always by chance but because they are
slightly different from the general population in some way. Perhaps they
can run faster or further and so get to food before the others; or they
have a better sense of smell and find food that others cannot; or they
have stronger jaws and sharper teeth and can open nuts that others cannot
open. Which of these slight advantages they have over those that die is
not clearly understood; however, those that do survive have the
opportunity to reproduce and pass on their advantageous traits to a new
generation.

(6) So together with their high rates of reproduction and the survival of
those that have adapted in some beneficial way, mouse-like rodents are in
a strong position to survive well into the future. Ultimately, however,
what probably enables these mouse-like rodents to reproduce so
successfully is the fact that their teeth allow them to eat highly
nutritious nuts and seeds so they do not have to spend most of their time
engaged in the dangerous activity of gathering food.


問1 Paragraph (2) states that [ 46 ].
{1} most birds and mammals can also digest the seeds they eat
{2} mouse-like rodents are not as successful as other animals
{3} mouse-like rodents cannot bite into the center of nuts and seeds
{4} rodents have four incisors and powerful muscles around their mouths

問2 In paragraph (3), which of the following is NOT mentioned as a
benefit of eating energy-rich foods? [ 47 ]
{1} Eating food high in fat and protein helps rodents develop muscular
bodies.
{2} It takes little time to get enough food to satisfy the body's energy
requirements.
{3} Less time is spent being exposed to the dangers of being eaten by
another animal.
{4} The time that is not spent searching for food can be used for raising
a family.

問3 According to paragraph (4), [ 48 ].
{1} the good point of having many young is that they exhibit different
traits
{2} the increase in the population of a species may lead to food shortages
{3} the Norwegian rat is a good example of surviving food shortages
{4} the population of rodents is kept down by natural death

問4 Paragraph (5) discusses [ 49 ].
{1} the breeding habits of rodents and other methods of repopulation
{2} the different kinds of successful rodent subspecies
{3} the disadvantages that the surviving rodents face
{4} the possible reasons why some rodents survive population crashes

問5 The theme of the passage is about [ 50 ].
{1} the advantages of using incisors for eating high energy food
{2} the mouse-like rodents and the reasons for their success
{3} the relationship between the rodent population and the food supply
{4} the rodents which account for the 40% of mammal species

問6 The contents covered in the passage are listed at random below.
(a) Sharp teeth and a powerful bite
(b) The likely explanation for survival
(c) Reproduction and population crashes
(d) A background to mouse-like rodents
(e) The advantages of high energy food
(f) Conclusion


Which of the following best reflects the flow of the passage? [ 51 ]
{1} (b)→(a)→(c)→(d)→(e)→(f)
{2} (b)→(a)→(e)→(c)→(d)→(f)
{3} (d)→(a)→(c)→(b)→(e)→(f)
{4} (d)→(a)→(e)→(c)→(b)→(f)


※マーク部分の□は[ ]で、マル1は{1}で表記しています。

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=========================== お知らせ1 ===============================

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■ 解答・解説

2011年も第6問は長文問題でした。
概ね段落1つにつき設問が1つなので、設問で示された段落をしっかり読めば、
確実に正解できるはずです。


まずは設問から確認してみましょう!

問1 パラグラフ(2)は[ 46 ]と述べています。

{1}ほとんどの鳥とほ乳類は食べた種も消化できる
{2}ネズミのような齧歯類は、他の動物ほど成功していない


(以下略)


(有料版では、解説の続きや語句コーナー、解答一覧も掲載しています)
 http://www.mag2.com/m/0001641009.html


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=========================== お知らせ2 ===============================

ブログにて様々な問題を解説しています!

■ センター数学を理由の理由まで解説するブログ
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■ センター英語をひとつひとつ解説するブログ
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紙の書籍、電子書籍もご利用ください。
中学・高校の英語・数学の書籍を出版しています。

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■ 全文訳(基本的に直訳ですが、一部意訳しています)

(1) ラット、ネズミ、ハムスター、そしてリスは、齧歯類と呼ばれる動物の大きな
グループに属しています。齧歯類は約2,000種存在すると推定され、我々が知って
いる動物のグループの中で、最も成功を収めたものの一つだと言われています。
齧歯類のグループは、地球上の全てのほ乳類の40%以上を占めるので、成功して…

(以下略)

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■ 今回の高校レベルの単語・熟語など

(2)
enable:"able"の動詞形。"en-"は動詞化の接頭辞。「可能にする」
a wide range of:そのまま単語の意味をつなげて「広い範囲の、様々な種類の」
unlike:「~のような」の"like"の対義語。「~と似ていない、~と違って」

(以下略)

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解説の続きは、本日21時配信予定の

【高校英語】過去問攻略!センター英語
 http://www.mag2.com/m/0001641009.html

に掲載します!
文法セクションはもちろん、第6問の長文まで、翻訳も行っている著者が、
全文訳・語句までイメージ重視&論理的に解説します。
月・水・土配信。\540/月。最初の1ヶ月は無料です。


ブログにもメルマガの記事を分割して掲載しています。

■ センター英語をひとつひとつ解説するブログ
   http://a-emaenglish.seesaa.net/


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------------------------------------------------------------------------
          発行者 江間淳(EMA Atsushi)
 mm@a-ema.com http://www.a-ema.com/k/ https://twitter.com/A_EMA_RYU
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                        無断転載・引用を禁じます。

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